Primary sources are firsthand accounts of historical events that allow you unfiltered access into the past. Here are some other reasons to use primary sources:
|Book||Aristotle. Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation. Edited by J. Barnes. 2 vols. Bollingen Series. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983.|
Author of original document, last name first. “Title of document.” Date of document.
March On Milwaukee Civil Rights History Project. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. http://www4.uwm.edu/libraries/digilib/march/index.cfm.
|Manuscripts||Keller, Helen. Helen Keller to John Hitz, August 29, 1893. Letter. From Library of Congress, The Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers, 1862-1939. http://www.loc.gov/item/magbellbib004020 (accessed January 11, 2006).|
|Newspapers||The Stars and Stripes, “Free Education While You Wait For Orders Home.” Dec. 6, 1918. From Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/item/sn88075768/1918-12-06/ed-1/ (accessed Feb. 10, 2012).|
|A Primary Source Quoted by a Second Source*||
Author Surname, First Name/Initial [original author]. Title. Place of Publication:
Publisher, Year. Quoted in Author First Name/Initial Surname [the author
of the book that refers to the thoughts/ideas of the other author]. Title.
Place of Publication: Publisher, Year, page #.
Gabriel, Astrik L.. "The Educational Ideas of Christine de Pisan." Culture and
Imperialism. Journal of the History of Ideas 16, no. 1 (1995). Quoted in
Sarah Gwyneth Ross. The Birth of Feminism: Women as Intellect in
Renaissance Italy and England. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
*If an author quotes someone else's work, but you are unable to track down the original source, you must cite both the original and the secondary source in a footnote and bibliography.
Footnotes: Citations at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, marked by a superscript number which corresponds to the superscript number within the body of the text next to the content being cited.
Bibliography: All of the sources you consulted while writing your paper. These full citations are placed in alphabetical order by author's last name and include sources cited and relevant source that were not cited but used as a reference.
Use these basic guidelines when preparing your paper: